GARNet Research Roundup: August 16th 2019

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This holiday-time edition of the GARNet research roundup begins with
two papers that include the late Ian Moore from the University of Oxford
as a co-author. The first looks at the role of RAB-A5c in the control
of cellular growth anisotropy whilst the second characterises the
Transport Protein Particle II (TRAPPII) complex.

The third paper
is a UK-wide collaboration that assesses the role of UVA signaling on
stomatal development. Next is a paper from Cambridge and the JIC that
has identified the TAF4b protein as a novel regulator of meiotic
crossovers.

The fifth paper is from the University of York and
characterizes a role for cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) during seed
germination.

The next three papers feature scientists from the
University of Leeds in research that investigates 1, a peroxisomal ABC
transporter; 2, the role of LRR-RLKs in plasmodesmata development and 3,
the cell wall characteristics of banana and mango fruit.

The
ninth paper is from the University of Edinburgh and investigates the
role of S-nitrosylation in the control of SUMO conjugation.

The
next two papers include Steve Penfield at the JIC as a corresponding
author; the first looks at the role of endosperm-expressed
transcriptional factors during seed dormancy and the second, in
collaboration with researchers at the University of Warwick, identifies
novel QTLs involved in seed dormancy.

The penultimate study is
from Lancaster and presents a surprising outcome resulting from the
overexpression of the wheat CA1Pase gene. The final paper includes
Alison Tidy and Zoe Wilson from University of Nottingham as co-authors
on a study that looks at male fertility in Arabidopsis.


Kirchhelle C, Garcia-Gonzalez D, Irani NG, Jérusalem A, Moore I (2019) Two mechanisms regulate directional cell growth in Arabidopsis lateral roots. Elife. pii: e47988. doi: 10.7554/eLife.47988

Open Access

Charlotte Kirchhelle
leads this work that was conducted in the lab of the late Ian Moore at
the University of Oxford. She investigates the role of the
plant-specific small GTPase RAB-A5c during growth anisotropy in lateral
roots, which involves coordinated orientations of cellulose microfibrils
(CMFs) and by cortical microtubules (CMTs). They identify RAB-A5c
dependent and independent mechanisms to control cellular growth
anisotropy in this growing tissue.

From https://elifesciences.org/articles/47988


Kalde M, Elliott L, Ravikumar
R, Rybak K, Altmann M, Klaeger S, Wiese C, Abele M, Al B, Kalbfuß N, Qi
X, Steiner A, Meng C, Zheng H, Kuster B, Falter-Braun P, Ludwig C, Moore
I, Assaad FF (2019) Interactions between Transport Protein Particle (TRAPP) complexes and Rab GTPases in Arabidopsis. Plant J. doi: 10.1111/tpj.14442

This
German-led study includes Monika Kalde from the University of Oxford as
first author as well Ian Moore as co-author. They characterize the
components and function of the Transport Protein Particle II (TRAPPII)
complex. TRAPPII plays multiple roles in intra-cellular transport and
this study identified 13 subunits, including several that were
previously uncharacterised.


Isner JC, Olteanu VA, Hetherington AJ,
Coupel-Ledru A, Sun P, Pridgeon AJ, Jones GS, Oates M, Williams TA,
Maathuis FJM, Kift R, Webb AR, Gough J, Franklin KA, Hetherington AM
(2019). Short- and Long-Term Effects of UVA on Arabidopsis Are Mediated by a Novel cGMP Phosphodiesterase. Curr Biol.29(15):2580-2585.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2019.06.071

Open Access

Jean-Charles Isner
is the first author on this collaboration between labs in Bristol,
York, Oxford and Cambridge. They show that UVA radiation (which
represents 95% of the UV radiation reaching earth) inhibits stomatal
opening through a process that involves a reduction in the cytosolic
level of cGMP. The AtCN-PDE1 gene (a cGMP-activated phosphodiesterase)
is needed to decrease cGMP levels in Arabidopsis. This response is
present across the tree of life except in metazoans. They show AtCN-PDE1
is needed for the UVA response and that prolonged UVA exposure causes
increased growth yet reduced water use efficiency.


Lawrence EJ, Gao H, Tock AJ, Lambing C, Blackwell AR, Feng X, Henderson IR (2019) Natural Variation in TBP-ASSOCIATED FACTOR 4b Controls Meiotic Crossover and Germline Transcription in Arabidopsis. Curr Biol. pii: S0960-9822(19)30844-9. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2019.06.084

Open Access

This work from Ian Henderson’s lab in Cambridge and Xiaoqi Feng’s lab at the JIC is led by Emma Lawrence
and isolates a novel modifier of meiotic crossover frequency,
TBP-ASSOCIATED FACTOR 4b (TAF4b), which encodes a subunit of the RNA
polymerase II general transcription factor TFIID. They show TAF4b
expression is enriched in meiocytes, compared to the more general
expression of its paralog TAF4. Ultimately they reveal TAF4b drives a
novel mode of meiotic recombination control through its activity as a
general transcription factor.


Barros-Galvão T, Dave A, Cole A, Harvey D, Langer S, Larson TR, Vaistij FE, Graham IA (2019) cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid represses Arabidopsis thaliana seed germination in shade light conditions. J Exp Bot. pii: erz337. doi: 10.1093/jxb/erz337

Open Access

Thiago Barros-Galvão
is first author on this study from Ian Graham’s lab at the University
of York. They investigate how the jasmonic acid pre-cursor
cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) contributes to control of seed
germination, particularly under shade conditions. OPDA acts through the
activity of the transcription factor MOTHER-OF-FT-AND-TFL1 (MFT).

From https://academic.oup.com/jxb/advance-article/doi/10.1093/jxb/erz337/5536641


Carrier
DJ, van Roermund CWT, Schaedler TA, Rong HL, IJlst L, Wanders RJA,
Baldwin SA, Waterham HR, Theodoulou FL, Baker A (2019) Mutagenesis separates ATPase and thioesterase activities of the peroxisomal ABC transporter, Comatose. Sci Rep. 9(1):10502. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-46685-9

Open Access

Alison Baker at the University of Leeds is the corresponding author of this UK, Dutch collaboration that includes David Carrier
as first author. They characterise the peroxisomal ABC transporter,
Comatose (CTS) through mutagenesis of key residues responsible for the
proteins intrinsic acyl-CoA thioesterase (ACOT) activity. Ultimately
they show that ACOT activity depends of endogenous ATPase activity but
that these activities could be functional separated by mutagenesis of
key residues.


Grison M, Kirk P, Brault M, Wu XN, Schulze WX, Benitez-Alfonso Y, Immel F, Bayer EMF (2019). Plasma membrane-associated receptor like kinases relocalize to plasmodesmata in response to osmotic stress. Plant Physiol. pii: pp.00473.2019. doi: 10.1104/pp.19.00473

Open Access

GARNet advisory committee member Yoselin Benitez-Alfonso and members of her research group are co-authors on the next two studies. This work is led by Magali Grison
in Emmanuelle Bayer’s lab in Bordeaux. They show that the PM-localised
Leucine-Rich-Repeat Receptor-Like-Kinases (LRR-RLKs), QSK1 and IMK2
relocate and cluster to the plasmodesmata under osmotic stress
conditions. Through a variety of assays that focuses on QSK1 the authors
show that reorganisation of RLKs can be important for the regulation of
callose deposition at plasmodesmata and under osmotic stress this can
have a functional effect on lateral root development.


Rongkaumpan G, Amsbury S, Andablo-Reyes E, Linford H, Connell S, Knox JP, Sarkar A, Benitez-Alfonso Y, Orfila C (2019) Cell
Wall Polymer Composition and Spatial Distribution in Ripe Banana and
Mango Fruit: Implications for Cell Adhesion and Texture Perception.
Front Plant Sci. 10:858. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2019.00858

Open Access

Ganittha
Rongkaumpan is first author on this interdisciplinary collaborative
research from multiple departments at the University of Leeds. They
characterise the composition of the cell wall in two fruits, banana and
mango, which soften during ripening. The authors compared structural
information, obtained using Atomic Force Microscopy and biochemical
analysis, with data from rheology and tribology assays to understand why
these fruits feel different in the mouth during ingestion.


Skelly MJ, Malik SI, Le Bihan T, Bo Y, Jiang J, Spoel SH, Loake GJ (2019) A role for S-nitrosylation of the SUMO-conjugating enzyme SCE1 in plant immunity Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. pii: 201900052. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1900052116

Michael Skelly from the University of Edinburgh is the lead author of this study from the labs of Gary Loake and GARNet chairman Steven Spoel.
They investigate the mechanism through which nitric oxide signaling
after pathogen recognition stimulates inhibitory S-nitrosylation of the
Arabidopsis SUMO E2 enzyme, SCE1. S-nitrosylation occurs on the
evolutionary conserved Cys139 of SCE1 and they investigate the wider
significant of this residue in the control of immune responses across
eukaryotes.


MacGregor DR, Zhang N, Iwasaki M, Chen M, Dave A, Lopez-Molina L, Penfield S (2019) ICE1 and ZOU determine the depth of primary seed dormancy in Arabidopsis independently of their role in endosperm development. Plant J. 98(2):277-290. doi: 10.1111/tpj.14211

Open Access

Dana MacGregor (now at Rothamsted Research) leads this work from the lab of Steve Penfield at
the JIC that investigates the extent of control on depth of primary
dormancy that is mediated by the endosperm-expressed transcription
factors ZHOUPI (ZOU) and INDUCER OF CBF EXPRESSION1 (ICE1). These
effects are additive and independent of their role in endosperm
development since the dormancy defect in ice1 and zou mutants can be
ameliorated without altering seed morphology. They show that ICE1 acts
primarily through control of ABA INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3).


Footitt S, Walley PG, Lynn JR, Hambidge AJ, Penfield S, Finch-Savage WE (2019) Trait
analysis reveals DOG1 determines initial depth of seed dormancy, but
not changes during dormancy cycling that result in seedling emergence
timing.
New Phytol. doi: 10.1111/nph.16081

This research is a collaboration between the John Innes Centre and the Universities Liverpool and Warwick, from which Steven Footitt
is first author. They used two Arabidopsis ecotypes that have
differences in the timing of seedling emergence to identify new QTLs
involved in depth of seed dormancy and Seedling Emergence Timing (SET).
They revealed that DOG1 is important for determining depth of dormancy.
In addition they identified three new SET QTLs, which are each
physically close to DOG1, that play a role in the control of SET in the
field.


Lobo AKM, Orr D, Gutierrez MO, Andralojc J, Sparks C, Parry MAJ, Carmo-Silva E (2019) Overexpression of ca1pase decreases Rubisco abundance and grain yield in wheat. Plant Physiol. pii: pp.00693.2019. doi: 10.1104/pp.19.00693

Open Access

This research from Lancaster Environmental Centre and their Brazilian collaborators is led by Ana Karla Lobo
and demonstrates that overexpression of
2-carboxy-D-arabinitol-1-phosphate phosphatase (CA1Pase) in wheat causes
a reduction in above ground biomass and compromises wheat grain yields.
As CA1Pase is involved in removing inhibitors of Rubisco activity this
result is contrary to the anticipated outcome. This suggests that
Rubisco inhibitors might actually protect enzyme activity, thus
maintaining the number of active sites that the enzyme is able to
support.


Zhao SQ, Li WC, Zhang Y, Tidy AC, Wilson ZA (2019) Knockdown of Arabidopsis ROOT UVB SENSITIVE4 Disrupts Anther Dehiscence by Suppressing Secondary Thickening in the Endothecium. Plant Cell Physiol. doi: 10.1093/pcp/pcz127

Shu-Qing Zhao is the lead author on this China-UK collaboration that includes Alison Tidy
and Zoe Wilson from the University of Nottingham. They show that using
an artificial microRNA to reduce levels of the RUS4 gene in Arabidopsis
causes a decline in male fertility. They perform a detailed analysis of
the RUS4 expression module and how it impacts fertility.

The post GARNet Research Roundup: August 16th 2019 appeared first on Weeding the Gems.